About the Author x

Preface xi

Map of Haiti xiv

1 Introduction 1

2 Demographics and Development

The Three Stages of Demography-Driven Development 7

Foreign Policy and Geographic Proximity 9

3 Haiti in Perspective 12

The Historical Perspective through 1971 12

Beginnings of Modernization (1971-1991) 17

Setback and Restart (1991-1995) 20

The National Character 22

4 Population Growth: Unrelenting Pressure on Arable Land 27

Unrelenting Population Growth 27

Deforestation and the Environmental Consequences 34

A Comprehensive Strategy for Rural Development 39

The Inner Dynamics of Population, Deforestation, and Rural Development 41

5 Rural/Urban Migration: The Central Development Challenge 43

The Broad Strategy 47

The Components 48

Decentralization 51

6 Outward Migration: Guinée Becomes Miami

The Deepening American Connection 56

The Impact of the 1991 Crisis 59

Migration/Foreign Policy Limbo 62

7 Demography-Driven Development in Haiti: Recapitulation and Outlook 66

The National Development Strategy 68

Effective Implementation by the Haitian Government

The International Support Program 76

8 The U.S. Interest in New World Order Haiti 81

National Security and Commercial Interests 81

The New World Ordering of Nations 83

The Failed-Nation Syndrome: The Broad U.S. Interest

Haiti: The Country-Specific Interests 86

9 The U.S. Policy Response 90

Targeted Assistance for Nation-Building 91

Protection of U.S. Borders 96

Haiti and the Post-NA PTA Caribbean Strategy 98

Demographics, Development, and U.S. Foreign Policy 102

Appendix A: Family Planning Programs in Haiti Alex de Sherbinin

Family Planning Programs in Developing Countries:

An Overview 107

Haitis Family Planning Program: The Early Years

Haitis Family Planning Program since 1986 111

Overall Program Evaluation 113

Appendix B: U.S. Immigration Law as Applied to Haiti 116

Christopher Chivvis

Interdiction of Migrants on the High Seas: Safety-at-Sea

Contingency 117

Interdiction without Safety-at-Sea Concerns: Territorial

Jurisdiction, Consensual Boarding, Stateless Vessels

Demarcation of U.S. Borders: Entry or Repatriation?

Immigration Proceedings: Current Prospects for Haitians

in Need of Asylum 121

U.S-Haitian Repatriation and Asylum Policy 124

Notes 127